Culture Is the Explanation
Most historians focus on events. Implicit in this analysis is a rejection of identity: it isn’t the character of a nation, the culture or dominant philosophy, but event-causality that explains history. Germany, we are told, resorted to the fascistic Nazi form of government because of the unfair Treaty of Versailles even though Italy became fascist a decade before and was on the winning side. The susceptibility of continental Europe and Latin America to dictatorship in the 20th century has to do with cultural flaws. The Anglo-Sphere remained close to the liberal model during that same period.
Today, Islamic societies are susceptible to dictatorship and barbarity. I talk about it here.